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How Much Is An Acre Of Land In Alabama?

How Much Is An Acre Of Land In Alabama
Alabama flag Where can I find out how much money one acre of property in Alabama is worth? (Eric Schultz/[email protected]) Oh, grant me land, plenty of land, with clear night sky above. Although you may not be familiar with the words to the old song “Don’t Fence Me In,” they are relevant to a new ranking that illustrates how much an acre of property is worth in each state.

  • It seems that one acre of land in Alabama can set you back a hefty coin if you want to buy it.
  • According to the findings of the study conducted by Wall Street 24/7, one acre of land in each state ranges in price from least costly to most expensive.
  • With an average price of $12,356 per acre, Alabama came in at number 23 on the list of states with the highest real estate costs.

You may contrast that with the states that have the lowest prices, which are Wyoming (1,558 dollars an acre), New Mexico (1,931 dollars an acre), and Nevada (2,116 dollars an acre.) Where, exactly, do land prices reach their peak? The state of New Jersey, where the price of an acre of land is now $196,410.

How much land is in Alabama?

In terms of land area, Alabama is the 30th biggest state in the United States, covering a total area of 52,423 square miles (34 million acres).

How much is pasture land worth in Alabama?

You are aware of the proverb that states, “Invest in land; they’re not making any more of it!” As a result of rising farm real estate values in Alabama, now is an excellent moment to purchase the land that you have always dreamt of owning. The following is a summary of the specific ways in which the value of agricultural real estate in Alabama has improved in 2018.

  • Farm real estate values Over the course of the previous year, agricultural real estate prices in Alabama saw a gain of $30 per acre, which corresponds to an increase of around 1 percent when compared to the previous year’s values.
  • How does this measure up against the other states in the Southeast? Farm real estate in South Carolina had a $10 per acre price rise (a less than 0.5 percent increase over 2017) The value of farmland in Georgia fell by $50 per acre over this time period (a 1.4 percent decrease from 2017) Between 2017 and 2018, there was no change in Florida’s worth.

And throughout the country? In 2018, the value of agricultural real estate was an average of $3,140 per acre, which is an increase of $60 from 2017. Rent in currency for agricultural land In Alabama, agricultural real estate prices climbed in 2018, which resulted in an increase in the cost of renting out farmland, which was beneficial for landowners.

Cash rent for agricultural property was $61.50 per acre in 2018, an increase of $3.50 from the previous year. The following is a comparison to some of the other states in the Southeast: The cash rent for cropland in South Carolina increased by $2, bringing the total to $48.50 per acre. The cash rent for farmland in Georgia decreased by $4, coming up at $116 per acre.

In 2018, the cash rent for farmland in Florida fell to $115 per acre, a decline of $8 from the previous year. In 2018, the cash rent for farmland across the country grew by $2 per acre, reaching a total of $138. In 2018, the national cash rent for pasture remained the same at $12.50 per acre throughout the country.

  1. Additional data pertaining to Alabama The cash rent per irrigated acre was $111, which was $10 less than what it was in 2017, bringing the total down to $111.
  2. The average cash rent paid for an acre of land that is not served by an irrigation system grew to $59, which is a $4 rise over what it was in 2017.

In the year 2018, the average price paid per acre for pasture property in Alabama was $2,300. The typical cost throughout the nation was $1,390. In 2018, the average rent for pasture land was $22 per acre in Alabama, which was higher than the average price of $17 in Florida and $27 in Georgia.

In 2018, it appears to be a wise investment to own land in Alabama and to rent it out. Click this link to view the whole report that was compiled by the National Agricultural Statistics Service Southern Region. Are you interested in purchasing or selling real estate in West Alabama? Please contact Bill Mackey Real Estate at their office number 334-289-8470 right now.

Continue to follow the Bill Mackey Real Estate blog for more facts and statistics like these, as well as for information that is valuable for home buyers, sellers, and owners.

Where is an acre of land cheapest?

According to the information shown on the page that details land costs per acre, New Mexico is the state that offers the most affordable property. This is partly owing to the fact that there is a significant amount of land there that is deserted and rural.

Who owns the most land in Alabama?

How to Buy Land / Lots in Huntsville Alabama | Everything You NEED to Know

The Emmerson Family owns 2.3 million acres of property throughout the states of California, Washington state, and Oregon. They are the greatest landowner in the United States. The States with the Most Prominent Landowners in 2022

State Alabama
Name McDonald Family
Amount 100k
Link(s) Source

How much does it cost to build a house in Alabama?

– What is the Average Cost of Building a House in Alabama? The typical cost of constructing a home in Alabama ranges from around $200,000 to $540,000. The cost per square foot is anticipated to range between $170 to $305 on average in 2022, according to the forecasts.

  • Cost estimates range from around $340,000 to $600,000 for the construction of a home in Alabama that is 2000 square feet in size.
  • If you want a custom-made house, expect to spend at least $500 on it.
  • A single-family home in Alabama, Alabama will take between seven and ten months to construct.
  • The quality of living in the state is at 82.3.

Therefore, it should not come as much of a surprise to learn that the costs of labor here are quite low.

How much is farmland worth in Alabama?

A measurement of the worth of all land and structures on farms, the farm real estate value in the United States averaged $3,380 per acre in 2021, an increase of $220 per acre over the previous year’s value. Alabama agricultural real estate values grew $50 per acre while Florida values jumped $120 per acre.

How much is a farm in Alabama?

Information Regarding Farm Land in Alabama Are you looking to purchase land in Alabama for agricultural use? You may search the listings on Land And Farm for farms and ranches for sale in Alabama, including farms that are presently advertised for sale in the state of Alabama.

  • According to the most recent data from Land And Farm, the state of Alabama has over 100,000 acres of farmland available for purchase.
  • The total market value of the farms that are up for sale in Alabama is $282 million, and the average price of a farm that is up for sale in the state is $903,148.
  • Livestock in Alabama, including cattle, goats, horses, pigs, and sheep, are maintained on farms and other types of agricultural property for sale throughout the state.

The property on these Alabama farms for sale is now being used for a variety of purposes, including growing wood, row crops, poultry, orchards, vineyards, and cattle. Over 1.3 million acres of public hunting territory in Alabama, which also has some of the most lax hunting seasons and bag restrictions in the country, enables the state to make the most of the abundant natural resources it possesses.

White-tailed deer, wild turkey, mourning doves, rabbits, and ducks are among the most sought-after game animals to hunt in Alabama’s wild areas. Rabbits are another favorite target. You may locate a farm, cattle business, hobby farm, or other farm property that is suitable for your future commercial or lifestyle requirements in Alabama by browsing all of the farms, ranches, and other rural real estate that is now for sale in the state on Land And Farm.

The amount of catfish caught in Alabama accounts for roughly one-third of the total sales of catfish across the country. Other important agricultural products in this region are broiler chicks, cattle, and eggs, all of which are utilized in the production of commercial meat products.

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How much does an acre of land cost in Georgia 2022?

The Dat –

Year 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Five Year Avg.
USDA Co Avg. Yield 216 204 190 189 191 198
USDA Avg Price Received Corn $3.55 $3.42 $3.50 $3.74 $3.47 $3.54
Est. Gross Revenue $765.38 $698.02 $666.05 $706.11 $663.46 $699.81
USDA Co Avg. Rent $249 $243 $263.50 $284 $262 $260
USDA Cash Rent as a % of est. gross 32.53% 34.81% 39.56% 40.22% 39.49% 37.32%
Rent @ 37% Est. Gross Revenue $283 $258 $246 $261 $245 $259

There were no USDA statistics available for the year 2018. This figure represents the combined totals for 2017 and 2019. After applying our research strategy to the data, we discovered the following: The average rent per acre in USDA counties has been $260 per year during the past five years on average.

  • The predicted gross has a five-year average of around $700.00 per acre.
  • The cash rent as a percentage of the expected gross has a five-year average of being less than 37 percent.
  • Using data provided by the USDA, we were able to deduce an important piece of information from this exercise: the percentage of predicted total revenue that comes from farmland cash rent is 37% in Dekalb county.

In the case of maize, the cash rent as a percentage of gross is often in the region of 30–38 percent. We notice a low of 30% and a high of 40% throughout the course of those five years, with three out of the five years coming in over 38%, which implies that those years were likely lower margin years for the farmer.

Year 2021
USDA Co Avg. Yield ?
USDA Avg. Price Received (YTD) $5.48
Est. Gross Revenue ?
USDA Co Avg. Rent $258
USDA Cash Rent as a % of est. gross ?

Because we are lacking statistics for the USDA county average yield, we are unable to calculate an expected gross income. This will prohibit us from doing so. The table may, however, be finished for 2021 if, as a stand-in, we use the five-year average of the USDA corn yields for Dekalb.

Year 2021
USDA Co 5 yr. Avg. Yield 198
USDA Avg. Price Received (YTD) $5.48
Est. Gross Revenue $1,085.04
USDA Co Avg. Rent $258
USDA Cash Rent as a % of est. gross 23.78%
Rent @ 37% Est. Gross Revenue $401.46

If we were to update the first chart with the data from 2021, it would look somewhat like this:

Year 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Six Year Avg.
USDA Co Avg. Yield 216 204 190 189 191 198 198
USDA Avg Price Received $3.55 $3.42 $3.50 $3.74 $3.47 $5.48 $3.86
Est. Gross Revenue $765.38 $698.02 $666.05 $706.11 $663.46 $1,085.04 $764.01
USDA Co Avg. Rent $249 $243 $263.50 $284 $262 $258 $260
USDA Cash Rent as a % of est. gross 32.53% 34.81% 39.56% 40.22% 39.49% 23.78% 35.07%
Rent @ 37% Est. Gross Revenue $283 $258 $246 $261 $245 $401.46 $283

Let’s take a look at how the year 2021 affects the data and how it stacks up against the years that came before it: The cash rent that the USDA will pay as a percentage of the expected gross in 2021 is just 23%, which is 9% less than the previous low that was reached over this period of five years. How Much Is An Acre Of Land In Alabama The first question that a great many of people are going to have is whether or not this indicates that we should anticipate a 53 percent rise in farm cash rent. The simple answer to that question is no. We can be confident that an adjustment is on the horizon based on the data because we see estimated gross revenue surging and we see that in 2021 the ratio of farmland cash rent as a percent of estimated gross revenue will be at 23%, which is significantly lower than the previous five year low of 32%.

To what extent, then, should a landowner anticipate making adjustments? What can we expect to find? When we look ahead to the year 2022, commodity prices have remained high, and a large number of farmers have been given the option to enter into forward contracts for grain at prices that are higher than $5.

As a result of the fact that the majority of people are now planning their budgets based on prices at $5 or higher, whereas in the past the majority of people planned their expenses and rent based on prices ranging from $3.50 to $3.75, we anticipate that the estimated gross revenue in 2022 will be closer to 2021 than it was in any of the previous five years.

  • The good news is the following.
  • On the other hand, the same inflation that has helped boost commodity prices has also had an influence on the pricing of inputs, most notably fertilizer.
  • These infographics on the cost of fertilizer assist to put such rises into perspective: There is widespread belief that the costs of seeds and other agricultural equipment will likewise rise.

Keeping all of above in mind, how much money would an acre of land cost in the year 2022? Let’s take a look at the numbers again: If we compare the 5-year average rent computed at 37% of expected gross income to the 6-year average, we find that the 5-year average rent is $259/acre, while the 6-year average rent is $283/acre.

This is a difference of 9%. If, for the year 2021, we compute rent based on 30% of the projected gross instead of 37% of the estimated gross, the cash rent as a percentage of the estimated gross would be $325 per acre. This represents an increase of almost 25%. We decided on a percentage of 30 percent since, as was said before, our cash rentals typically range from 30 to 38 percent of our total revenue, and this would put us back into that area.

It seems reasonable to begin with these two numbers as a point of reference. Given the rise in total income, even a decrease of 9% in growth appears plausible at this point. A rise of 25 percent in only one year is an ambitious goal that seems unlikely.

  • Imagine that the cost of any aspect of your company rose by 25% over the course of a single year.
  • The vast majority of farmers will be hesitant to agree to a 25% rise in their cash rent because they are aware that, historically speaking, once cash rents have increased, they have been difficult to decrease again, even when commodity prices have decreased.

This is observable by looking at the ratio of estimated gross revenue to farmland cash rents over the course of the five years. They began at a very reasonable 32%, but as gross revenue dropped, rents did not, resulting in a peak ratio of 40%. This is observable by looking at the ratio of estimated gross revenue to farmland cash rents over the course of the five years.

Year 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Five Year Avg.
USDA Co Avg. Rent $189 $216 $237 $240 $278 $232
YoY Growth 14.29% 9.72% 1.27% 15.83% 10.28%

The most significant year-over-year rise that occurred during this time period was 16%. Continue our examination, shall we? What will happen if we additionally bring in yield and price data throughout the course of this period and look at the ratio of cash rent as a percent of predicted gross?

Year 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Five Year Avg.
USDA Co Avg. Yield 180.4 183.8 159.3 193.8 194.1 182.28
USDA Price Received Mkt. Year $3.85 $6.14 $6.71 $6.12 $4.10 $5.38
Est. Gross Revenue $694.54 $1,128.53 $1,068.90 $1,186.06 $795.81 $974.77
USDA Co Avg. Rent $189 $216 $237 $240 $278 $232
YoY Growth 14.29% 9.72% 1.27% 15.83% 10.28%
USDA Cash Rent as a % of est. gross 27.21% 19.14% 22.17% 20.24% 34.93% 24.74%
Rent @ 25% Est. Gross Revenue $173.64 $282.13 $267.23 $296.51 $198.95 $243.69
YoY Growth 62.49% -5.28% 10.96% -32.90% 8.81%

A few intriguing considerations are as follows: The percentage of USDA cash rent to predicted total revenue has been far lower over the entirety of the time, and it is significantly lower than the 30–38 percent that has been recorded more recently. Between the years 2010 and 2011, the year-over-year growth of rent as a percentage of anticipated gross grew by 62%.

  1. If you recall, the growth in our numbers between the years 2020 and 2021 was 53% on a year-over-year basis.
  2. It would appear that a time of two years is a good benchmark to use for comparison.
  3. Even after taking into account the substantial decreases in the expected gross revenue, cash rent has been steadily increasing.

An great illustration of how USDA county average rentals are a lagging signal is provided by the fact that the most substantial year-over-year rise occurred in 2014, even though anticipated gross income decreased. After looking at the data from this time period, it is unreasonable to anticipate that the rent would go up by 25% this year.

This data also reveals that the previous time there was a boom in the price of commodities, cash rent as a percentage of expected gross income went below the barrier of 30%. However, this threshold was eventually reset when commodity prices fell and cash rentals continued to rise. In conclusion, after looking at evidence from more recent times as well as data from further back in history, a more reasonable projection for farm cash rent increases this coming year is between 9 and 14 percent.

In addition, if the price of commodities continues to rise until the year 2022, past trends would seem to indicate that rents will continue to go up until the predicted gross revenue ratio and cash rent fall back into the range of 30–38 percent. As a result, in order to answer the first question, what is a competitive farm cash rent range for the year 2022 in Dekalb County? A multiplier ranging between 1.09 and 1.14 corresponds to an increase of 9-14%.

DeKalb County 2022 Rent Projections
USDA $281-$294/acre
Professionally Managed $337-$353/acre

img class=’aligncenter wp-image-189362 size-full’ src=’’ alt=’How Much Is An Acre Of Land In Alabama’ /> Keep in mind that good farms with good operators will rent for more than the average, and some farms this year will top $400/acre in Dekalb county, but in terms of averages, we feel that the above is a good range based on recent and historical data. Good farms with good operators will rent for more than the average. How Much Is An Acre Of Land In Alabama

What is the average price of an acre in Alabama?

The price of farmland in Alabama has increased by an average of 4.8% each year over the past 20 years, reaching $3,500 per acre as of 2019. This is a total increase of $1,100.

What is the cheapest county to buy land in Alabama?

It’s been argued that land is often an excellent investment because there won’t be any more of it made in the future. In addition, if you are interested in purchasing land, there is a particular county in the state of Alabama that you might want to look into. conducted an analysis to determine where in each state one may purchase land at the lowest possible price. For the purpose of the research, undeveloped property, more precisely vacant lots, was the only type of property that was taken into consideration, along with statistics on average size and price per square foot.

Limestone County in North Alabama was the area in the state with the lowest prices for purchasing land. There is a price of 38 cents per square foot for the typical lot size of 79,120 square feet, which is the standard there. Due to the high cost of living in Alabama, the state ranked number 21 on the list.

  • Good morning, and welcome to the wake-up call for Tuesday.
  • What’s going on? Lightning strikes killed off all of the reindeer.
  • A lightning strike in the southern part of Norway was responsible for the deaths of more than 300 wild reindeer.
  • In a national park that is home to a herd of around 10,000 of the animals, 323 reindeer were discovered, including 70 young ones.

Among the herd were also 70 adults. It is thought that the reindeer were gathered together as a severe storm passed through, and that a lightning strike was what ultimately caused the animals’ deaths. Norway is home to around 25,000 wild reindeer at this time.

The wealth of a janitor is estimated to reach $8 million. When he passed away in June of 2014, a man who had worked in Vermont as a janitor and at a gas station unexpectedly left behind $8 million. According to members of his family, Ronald Read, who had worked as a janitor at JCPenney, had accumulated his wealth via thrifty saving and astute investment.

When he passed away at the age of 92, he owned stock in at least 95 distinct firms, the majority of which he had kept for decades or even centuries. Read bequeathed $4.8 million to the community hospital and another $1.2 million to the library when he passed away.

  1. A reward of $50,000 is being offered for information leading to the capture of the fugitive polygamist.
  2. Lyle Jeffs is the brother of polygamist Warren Jeffs, who is now doing time in jail.
  3. The FBI is offering a reward of fifty thousand dollars for information leading to the capture of Lyle Jeffs.
  4. In June, when Lyle Jeffs was being held in home confinement in Salt Lake City for trial on allegations of food stamp fraud, he removed the GPS ankle monitor that was attached to him and fled.

The FBI claims that Lyle Jeffs had a disagreement with his brother, who is the leader of the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, which caused Lyle Jeffs to flee the area. There have been allegations that Lyle Jeffs misused around $12 million in government benefits.

Warren Jeffs is currently serving a sentence of 20 years in prison on two counts of the criminal assault on a minor. A woman successfully shoots down a drone. A drone that was flying above a Virginia woman’s property was just brought down by the woman, who is 65 years old. Jennifer Youngman said that it just took one shot from her shotgun to knock down the unmanned aerial aircraft that was flying over her home.

She stated that she was on her front porch cleaning her two shotguns, a.410 gauge and a.20 gauge, when she heard a buzz. The buzz startled her. Youngman took aim as the drone came over the treetops and entered her property, and she “blasted it to smithereens,” as she put it.

How many acres is a football field?

The Monarchs Would Cover How Many Football Fields Total? Example: In the winter of 2012/2013, the population estimate was 1.19 hectares. Here is our computation using that information: Approximately 1 acre equals 1 football field. (The actual dimensions of a football field might vary from team to team.) One hectare is equal to 2.47 acres.

How big is a 40 acre plot?

Have you ever been curious about the size of an acre? An acre is defined as the following: “A unit of area that is used in land and sea bottom measurement and is equivalent to 160 square rods, 4,840 square yards, or 43,560 square feet.” This definition comes from the United States Customary System.

Is it a good time to buy land 2021?

Skip to content Reading Time: 6 minutes In 2022, one of the most effective methods for generating income is to make investments in real estate. The number of people looking to buy land as an investment has increased significantly over the course of the previous several years.

  1. There was a 155% rise in the number of sales of rural land from the year 2020 to the year 2021.
  2. This expansion might be attributed to the reliability that comes with the purchase of a plot of land.
  3. The ability to avoid many of the problems that are often associated with other types of investing is one of the numerous advantages of purchasing property as an investment.

Take a look through this post if the idea of investing in land is foreign to you. You will learn about the exciting world of land investment as well as the many types of land that are now accessible. Find out which of these would be the best investment for you in 2022, and focus your efforts there.

What is the population of Alabama 2022?

The state of Alabama, which is abbreviated as ‘AL’ in the United States, is located in the southeastern region of the country. It is bounded by Georgia to the east, Mississippi to the west, Tennessee to the north, and Florida to the south. Alabama, sometimes known as the “Yellowhammer State” due to the state bird that shares its name, meaning “tribe town” in the Creek Indian language.

  • The Spanish were the first people from Europe to arrive in the territory that is now known as Alabama.
  • European exploration began in the 16th century.
  • It is projected that Alabama will have a population of 5.08 million people in 2022, making it the 24th most populated state in the United States.
  • Its area of 52,419 square miles (135,765 square kilometers) places it as the 30th most extensive in the United States.

The Mauvilla Indians inspired the naming of the state’s capital city, Montgomery, as well as several other major cities, including Birmingham, Huntsville, Tuscaloosa, and Mobile. People gathering at the Shrimp Festival in Gulf Shores, Alabama, in October 2018 Image source: People gathering at the Shrimp Festival in Gulf Shores, Alabama, in October 2018 The population of Alabama is projected as 4.918 million as on 2019 with 0.32%, compared to 0.26% in 2018. How Much Is An Acre Of Land In Alabama

Year Population % Change
2010 4,785,448
2011 4,798,834 0.28
2012 4,815,564 0.35
2013 4,830,460 0.31
2014 4,842,481 0.25
2015 4,853,160 0.22
2016 4,864,745 0.24
2017 4,875,120 0.21
2018 4,887,871 0.26
2019 4,903,512 0.32
2020 5,024,279 census updated July 1, 2020
2021* 5,039,877 0.31
2022* 5,056,005 0.32

Estimates of the resident population were taken each year beginning in April of 2010 and continuing through July of 2018, with the final census taking place on July 1, 2020.

Is Alabama flat land?

The Great Butterfly Diversity of Alabama Is Linked to the State’s Unparalleled Climate and Geology Map, Which Is Divided Into Counties and Geographic Regions. With regard to the contents of this atlas, the state is broken up into the following three regions: Gray for the coast, green for the upper plains, and piedmont for the mountains (Orange).

Naturalists in Alabama are unanimous in their assertion that our state is home to an astonishingly large number of flora and fauna species. The number of recorded species of butterflies is comparable to and even exceeds that of the majority of states. The enormous variety of geology in Alabama, combined with its moderately mild temperature, contributes significantly to the state’s rich biodiversity.

There are high mountainous ridges and deep valleys in Alabama, as well as the foothills of the Appalachians, the Black Belt prairie, the flat coastal plains, river deltas, lakes, springs, enormous cave systems, swamps, Gulf and bay coastlines, and barrier islands.

Alabama is located in the southeastern United States. The vast majority of these different types of terrain are drained by a variety of river systems, the most notable of which being the massive Tennessee River, which runs across the northern one-fifth of the state. The Mobile River Basin is comprised of a number of significant rivers that flow to the southwest into Mobile Bay.

These rivers drain approximately four fifths of the section of the state that is located below the Tennessee River. Along the southeastern border of the state are a few isolated river basins that flow directly into the Gulf of Mexico, while other river basins drain into the Choctawhatchee, Escambia, and Pensacola Bays (Fig.2).

Where the harder, more erodibility resistant upland Paleozoic-age rocks of the northern half of the state meet the softer, more erodible Cretaceous-age and younger rocks of the more southerly Coastal Plain (= Southeastern Plains Ecoregion), there is a distinct line of waterfalls that occurs across the state.

These waterfalls make up the state’s distinctive waterfall line. Waterfalls and other features referred to as “white water” can be found anywhere this Fall Line is traversed by rivers and streams. The Fall Line extends from immediately west of Florence in the extreme northwest portion of the state down to just above Tuscaloosa and on to Centreville, then courses above Montgomery and eastward to the Alabama-Georgia state line near Auburn and Columbus, GA.

  1. The Fall Line also extends from the extreme southeast portion of the state down to just above Tuscaloosa and on to Centreville (Fig.2).
  2. The Fall Line follows, to a certain extent, the old coastline of the seas that were present in this region during the Cretaceous Period (known as the Mississippi Embayment).

The Fall Line has a significant impact on the distribution of flora and fauna throughout Alabama. There is a high probability that species endemic to lowlands will not be found above the Fall Line. On the other hand, a great number of species native to uplands will not go below the Fall Line and into the lowlands of the Coastal Plain (Smith-Vaniz, 1968; Mount, 1975; Mettee et al., 1996; Boschung and Mayden, 2004; Lacefield, 2000).

What is Alabama famous for?

Alabama is well-known for a number of things, including peanuts, southern hospitality, the gorgeous beaches along the gulf coast, and college football, particularly the rivalry that exists inside the state between the universities of Alabama and Auburn.