BIRMINGHAM RAILWAY The Waycross Air Line was chartered October 24, 1887, and the first 25 miles of railroad, from Waycross to Sessoms (a junction just east of Nicholls), opened in 1890.
When did trains come to Birmingham?
The first link with London – The original passenger station for Birmingham was at Curzon Street, opened by the London & Birmingham Railway in 1838. It was joined next door by a station for the Grand Junction Railway and a short distance away by another for the Birmingham & Derby Junction Railway.
Curzon Street was the northern terminus of the London & Birmingham line and was designed by Philip Hardwick to echo his grand arch at Euston. However the station was quickly overwhelmed by increasing rail traffic as Birmingham became an important hub for industry and commerce, and the station became inconveniently situated at the fringes of the growing city.
After the merger of the London & Birmingham and Grand Junction railways into the London & North Western Railway (LNWR) in 1846, it was decided a new, more conveniently located station would be built. It would become known as Birmingham New Street and agreement was made to allow this new station to be used by the Midland Railway, which had incorporated the Birmingham & Derby Junction Railway in 1844.
When was the first railroad built in Alabama?
Alabama has a rich railroading history beginning in 1830 when the General Assembly of Alabama chartered the the first railroad in the state, the Tuscumbia Railroad. The Tuscumbia Railroad connected the town of Tuscumbia, AL to what is now Sheffield on the Tennessee River.
In which US city was the first railroad opened in 1830?
Historic Labor Negotiations Wrap – The gains in the agreement are significant, including historic wage increases, best-in-class healthcare, and meaningful progress in creating more predictable, scheduled work shifts. Deeper Dive: The Full History Since their birth nearly 190 years ago, railroads have played a crucial role in America’s development.
Thanks to partial deregulation in 1980, railroads have increased productivity, lowered rates and reinvested hundreds of billions of dollars in private funds — not taxpayer funds — back into their networks to create what is now the safest and most efficient freight rail system in the world. The high quality of America’s privately-owned freight railroads must be maintained to continue to meet America’s transportation needs and help our economy grow.1830-1850: Railroads Critical to Early U.S.
Development America’s first intercity railroad, the 13-mile Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, was completed in early 1830. By 1850, more than 9,000 miles of railroad were in operation. In these early years, railroads provided a means for previously inaccessible areas to be developed; for mineral, timber and agricultural products to get to market; and for the developed and undeveloped areas of a growing nation to be bound together.
The North’s victory in the Civil War was partly due to its well-organized rail operations and the fact that most locomotive and railcar-building plants were in the North.1887-1970: Regulation & the Big Slide In 1887, the Interstate Commerce Act created the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) and made railroads the first U.S.
industry subject to comprehensive federal economic regulation. Over time, excessive regulation would nearly destroy the rail industry. By 1917, the 1,500 U.S. railroads operated around 254,000 miles and employed 1.8 million people — more than any other industry.
- Rail mileage had already peaked (in 1916), and rail employment would soon (around 1920).
- The Great Depression devastated railroads.
- Rail industry revenue fell by 50% from 1928 to 1933.
- By 1937, more than 70,000 miles of railroad were in receivership, representing around 30% of all rail miles.
- Many railroads were in financial trouble on the eve of World War II.
A surge in war-related traffic brought a temporary reprieve, but by 1949 rail traffic had fallen 28% from its 1944 level. Railroads were losing huge amounts of money on passenger operations, but government regulators often refused to allow railroads to discontinue money-losing passenger routes.
Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, the rapid growth of truck and barge competition (aided by tens of billions of dollars in federal funding for construction of the interstate highway and inland waterway systems) and huge ongoing losses in passenger operations led to more railroad bankruptcies service abandonments and deferred maintenance.
Misguided railroad regulation was a major factor behind the rail industry’s decline. For example, the ICC set maximum and minimum rates for rail shipments, with rates often unrelated to costs or demand. The ICC generally tried to keep rates low for grain and other bulk commodities at the expense of higher rates for many kinds of manufactured goods that moved in smaller quantities.
As a result, many shippers of this higher-rated freight diverted the freight to the highways instead. The concept of “open routing” added to railroad problems. The rail network was much like a web: several possible routes could often be used to move freight between two points. The cost to a railroad of a more circuitous route is generally higher than the costs of a more direct route.
However, regulation generally kept rates for routes between two points similar, even if railroads incurred much higher or lower costs to use some routes than others. Because regulation made it difficult for railroads to adjust individual rates, railroads typically resorted to across-the-board rate increases as their costs rose.
This meant rail rates tended to reflect cost patterns that existed in the past. Subsequent changes in technology and traffic flow that may have significantly altered those cost patterns were often ignored. Sometimes regulation made no sense. One infamous example involved “Big John” cars. In the early 1960s, the Southern Railway asked the ICC for permission to sharply reduce rates for grain shipments using new 100-ton hopper cars.
The ICC refused, partly because the lower rates would take business away from waterways. Only after a U.S. Supreme Court decision in its favor was the Southern Railway able to introduce the new cars. Likewise, regulations prevented railroads from offering lower rates to shippers who used “unit trains.” Consequently, it was not profitable for railroads to introduce this innovation until the 1960s, long after it otherwise would have been.1970s: Railroads at the Brink By the 1970s, excessive regulations, intense competition from trucks and barges, and changing shipping patterns drove railroads to the brink of ruin:
The Rail Passenger Service Act of 1970 created Amtrak and relieved freight railroads of most of the huge losses (then around $200 million per year, or around $850 million in today’s dollars) incurred in passenger service, but conditions continued to deteriorate on the freight side. During the 1970s, most major railroads in the Northeast and several major Midwestern railroads went bankrupt. Bankrupt railroads accounted for more than 21% of the nation’s rail mileage. Railroads lacked the funds to maintain their tracks properly. By 1976, more than 47,000 miles of track had to be operated at reduced speeds because of unsafe conditions. Railroads had billions of dollars in deferred maintenance, and the term “standing derailment” — when railcars that were standing still simply fell off poorly maintained track — was often heard. By 1978, the rail share of intercity freight had fallen to 35%. Between 1970 and 1979, the rail industry’s return on investment never exceeded 2.9% and averaged just 2.0%. The rate of return had been falling for decades: it averaged 4.1% in the 1940s, 3.7% in the 1950s, and 2.8% in the 1960s. Oppressive regulation continued to harm the industry. As the U.S. Department of Transportation said in 1978, “The current system of railroad regulation is a hodgepodge of inconsistent and often anachronistic regulations that no longer correspond to the economic condition of the railroadsor the often-conflicting needs of shippers, consumers, and taxpayers.”
The Staggers Rail Act of 1980: Balanced Regulation The status quo was untenable, so Congress had two options: nationalize the railroads at a continuing cost of untold billions of dollars or replace the excessive regulation of the past with a more balanced regulatory framework.
- Congress wisely chose balanced regulation and passed the Staggers Rail Act of 1980,
- By passing Staggers, Congress recognized that railroads faced intense competition for most of their traffic, but excessive regulation prevented them from competing effectively.
- To survive, railroads needed a new regulatory system that allowed them to act like most other businesses in managing their assets and pricing their services.
The Staggers Act ushered in a new era in which railroads could largely decide for themselves — rather than have Washington decide for them — what routes to use, what services to offer and what prices to charge. Railroads were allowed to base their rates on market demand; railroads and shippers could enter into confidential contracts; procedures for abandoning or selling unneeded rail lines were streamlined, and the need for railroads to earn adequate revenues to support their operations were explicitly recognized.
America’s freight railroads operate almost exclusively on infrastructure that they own, build, maintain and pay for themselves. By contrast, trucks, airlines and barges operate on highways, airways and waterways that taxpayers finance. America’s freight railroads have spent more than $780 billion since 1980 to create a freight rail network that is second to none in the world. Average rail rates (measured by inflation-adjusted revenue per ton-mile) are 40% lower than in 1981. This means the average rail customer can ship far more freight for the same price it paid more than 40 years ago.
Nothing is more important to railroads than safety; The last decade was the safest ever for U.S. railroads, with hazmat accident and employee injury rates at an all-time low.
Railroads move a ton of freight an average of nearly 500 miles per gallon of fuel, On average, trains are three to four times more fuel efficient than trucks. Railroads also reduce highway gridlock and greenhouse gas emissions. Freight railroads are stronger financially. Improved rail earnings are a positive development because they allow railroads to make the massive investments needed to keep their networks in top condition, improve service and add the new rail capacity America will need in the years ahead.
Moving More Freight by Rail is Good Public Policy As America’s economy grows, the need to move more freight will grow too. Recent forecasts from the Federal Highway Administration found that total U.S. freight shipments will rise from an estimated 19.3 billion tons in 2020 to 24.1 billion tons in 2040 — a 30% increase.
Retaining a balanced regulatory system that protects rail customers from unreasonable railroad conduct while giving railroads the freedom to largely decide for themselves how to manage their operations.
Engage in public-private partnerships that allow governments to expand the use of freight rail while paying only for the public benefits of a project, with the railroads paying for the benefits accruing to them.
Retaining existing truck size and weight limits. The taxes and fees heavy trucks pay are far less than the cost of the highway damage that heavy trucks cause, This multi-billion-dollar underpayment would become even greater if truck size and weight limits were increased.
What was the Southern Railway Birmingham Special?
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|The Birmingham Special in the final months of its service. Seen here at Somerset, Virginia, March 1969|
|Service type||Inter-city rail|
|Locale||Northeastern United States / Southeastern United States|
|First service||May 17, 1909|
|Last service||February 1, 1970|
|Former operator(s)||Southern Railway, Norfolk and Western Railway, Pennsylvania Railroad|
|Termini||New York, New York Birmingham, Alabama|
|Distance travelled||987.4 miles (1,589.1 km)|
|Train number(s)||Southbound: 17, northbound: 18 (1952)|
|Seating arrangements||Reclining seat coaches|
|Sleeping arrangements||Open sections, roomettes, double bedrooms & drawing rooms (1952)|
|Catering facilities||Diner; restaurant-lounge|
The Birmingham Special was a passenger train operated by the Southern Railway, Norfolk and Western Railway, and Pennsylvania Railroad in the southeastern United States, The train began service in 1909 and continued, with alterations, after Amtrak assumed control of most long-haul intercity passenger rail in the United States on May 1, 1971.
- The Birmingham Special is the namesake of the famed Glenn Miller big band tune ” Chattanooga Choo Choo “.
- The Southern Railway introduced the Birmingham Special on May 17, 1909, running between Birmingham, Alabama and New York City via Atlanta, Georgia and Washington, D.C.
- The Southern operated the train between Birmingham and Washington, while the Pennsylvania Railroad carried through cars between Washington and New York.
The train consisted of coaches, Pullman sleepers, and a dining car, Its road numbers on the Southern Railway were #29 (southbound) and #30 (northbound). On May 15, 1932, the Southern re-routed the Birmingham Special via Chattanooga, Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee and Bristol, bypassing Atlanta.
- The Norfolk and Western Railway hauled the train between Lynchburg, Virginia and Bristol, creating an unusual (though not unique) situation of the Birmingham Special using two unconnected sections of the Southern Railway: Washington–Lynchburg and Bristol–Birmingham.
- Into the 1950s the train consist included several types of sleeping accommodations for the New York-Birmingham train.
It was while riding this incarnation of the train that Mack Gordon and Harry Warren wrote “Chattanooga Choo Choo”. The song’s lyrics, which do not mention the Birmingham Special directly by name, mention boarding the train on track 29 at Pennsylvania Station, which has never had a track 29.
Also, when the song was recorded in 1941, the Birmingham Special used an electric, not steam, locomotive between New York and Washington. Ironically, the premier train of the Pennsylvania Railroad’s rival, the New York Central Railroad’s 20th Century Limited, used track 29 at Grand Central Terminal,
The time points mentioned reflect liberties for rhyme and suggest the pre- Bristol reroute (when it passed through North Carolina, it did not yet serve Chattanooga). The Pennsylvania ended through service north of Washington in 1956. By 1964 the sleeper service had been eliminated.
However, the longer route, along the same trackage as far south as Chattanooga, the Southern’s Pelican, retained sleeping cars. Through service to Memphis, Tennessee (connecting in Chattanooga) ended on January 31, 1967. The Southern Railway dropped the Birmingham Special name on February 1, 1970. Service south of Bristol ended August 11, 1970, although a rump train operated north from Birmingham to the Alabama/Tennessee border for a few more months.
The train was the last to serve Chattanooga’s Terminal Station, The Norfolk & Western joined Amtrak upon the latter’s start on May 1, 1971. However, Amtrak chose not to operate the Lynchburg–Bristol portion of the train. The Southern Railway, which had not initially joined Amtrak, continued to operate the unnamed train between Washington and Lynchburg until June 1, 1975, designating it #7 (southbound) and #8 (northbound).
Does Birmingham have a train system?
It’s easy to get around the West Midlands by train. Our rail network is one of the biggest outside London. Charges now apply for non-compliant vehicles which drive through Birmingham’s Clean Air Zone. Birmingham Airport is a global travel hub – yet only 10 minutes from the city centre.
What year did trains start running?
The Beginnings of American Railroads and Mapping | History of Railroads and Maps | Articles and Essays | Railroad Maps, 1828-1900 | Digital Collections | Library of Congress Railways were introduced in England in the seventeenth century as a way to reduce friction in moving heavily loaded wheeled vehicles.
- The first North American “gravity road,” as it was called, was erected in 1764 for military purposes at the Niagara portage in Lewiston, New York.
- The builder was Capt.
- John Montressor, a British engineer known to students of historical cartography as a mapmaker.
- Surveying and mapping activities flourished in the United States as people began moving inland over the inadequately mapped continent.
The settlement of the frontier, the development of agriculture, and the exploitation of natural resources generated a demand for new ways to move people and goods from one place to another. Privately owned toll or turnpike roads were followed first by steamships on the navigable rivers and by the construction of canals and then in the 1830s by the introduction of railroads for steam-powered trains.
- Right Half of James Hayward’s 1828 plan of a survey for the proposed Boston and Providence Railway.
- This is the earliest topographic strip map in the Library showing a railroad survey.
- These lines were originally intended for horse drawn trains.
- The earliest survey map in the United States that shows a commercial “tramroad” was drawn in Pennsylvania in October 1809 by John Thomson and was entitled “Draft Exhibiting,
the Railroad as Contemplated by Thomas Leiper Esq. From His Stone Saw-Mill and Quarries on Crum Creek to His Landing on Ridley Creek.” Thomas Leiper was a wealthy Philadelphia tobacconist and friend of Thomas Jefferson, who owned stone quarries near Chester.
Using his survey map, Thomson helped Reading Howell, the project engineer and a well-known mapmaker, construct the first practical wooden tracks for a tramroad. Thomson was a notable land surveyor who earlier had worked with the Holland Land Company. He was the father of the famous civil engineer and longtime president of the Pennsylvania Railroad, John Edgar Thomson, who was himself a mapmaker.
In 1873 the younger Thomson donated his father’s 1809 map to the Delaware County Institute of Science to substantiate the claim that the map and Leiper’s railroad were the first such work in North America. In 1826 a commercial tramroad was surveyed and constructed at Quincy, Massachusetts, by Gridley Bryant, with the machinery for it developed by Solomon Willard.
It used horsepower to haul granite needed for building the Bunker Hill Monument from the quarries at Quincy, four miles to the wharf on the Neponset River. These early uses of railways gave little hint that a revolution in methods of transportation was underway. James Watt’s improvements in the steam engine were adapted by John Fitch in 1787 to propel a ship on the Delaware River, and by James Rumsey in the same year on the Potomac River.
Fitch, an American inventor and surveyor, had published his “Map of the Northwest” two years earlier to finance the building of a commercial steamboat. With Robert Fulton’s Clermont and a boat built by John Stevens, the use of steam power for vessels became firmly established.
Railroads and steam propulsion developed separately, and it was not until the one system adopted the technology of the other that railroads began to flourish. (1857) John Stevens is considered to be the father of American railroads. In 1826 Stevens demonstrated the feasibility of steam locomotion on a circular experimental track constructed on his estate in Hoboken, New Jersey, three years before George Stephenson perfected a practical steam locomotive in England.
The first railroad charter in North America was granted to Stevens in 1815. Grants to others followed, and work soon began on the first operational railroads. Surveying, mapping, and construction started on the Baltimore and Ohio in 1830, and fourteen miles of track were opened before the year ended.
This roadbed was extended in 1831 to Frederick, Maryland, and, in 1832, to Point of Rocks. Until 1831, when a locomotive of American manufacture was placed in service, the B & O relied upon horsepower. Soon joining the B & O as operating lines were the Mohawk and Hudson, opened in September 1830, the Saratoga, opened in July 1832, and the South Carolina Canal and Rail Road Company, whose 136 miles of track, completed to Hamburg, constituted, in 1833, the longest steam railroad in the world.
The Columbia Railroad of Pennsylvania, completed in 1834, and the Boston and Providence, completed in June 1835, were other early lines. Surveys for, and construction of, tracks for these and other pioneer railroads not only created demands for special mapping but also induced mapmakers to show the progress of surveys and completed lines on general maps and on maps in “travelers guides”.
- Planning and construction of railroads in the United States progressed rapidly and haphazardly, without direction or supervision from the states that granted charters to construct them.
- Before 1840 most surveys were made for short passenger lines which proved to be financially unprofitable.
- Because steam-powered railroads had stiff competition from canal companies, many partially completed lines were abandoned.
It was not until the Boston and Lowell Railroad diverted traffic from the Middlesex Canal that the success of the new mode of transportation was assured. The industrial and commercial depression and the panic of 1837 slowed railroad construction. Interest was revived, however, with completion of the Western Railroad of Massachusetts in 1843.
- This line conclusively demonstrated the feasibility of transporting agricultural products and other commodities by rail for long distances at low cost.
- Early railroad surveys and construction were financed by private investors.
- Before the 1850 land grant to the Illinois Central Railroad, indirect federal subsidies were provided by the federal government in the form of route surveys made by army engineers.
In the 1824 General Survey Bill to establish works of internal improvements, railroads were not specifically mentioned. Part of the appropriation under this act for the succeeding year, however, was used for “Examinations and surveys to ascertain the practicability of uniting the head-waters of the Kanawha with the James river and the Roanoke river, by Canals or Rail-Roads.” In his Congressional History of Railways, Louis H.
Haney credits these surveys as being the first to receive federal aid. He /collections/railroad-maps-1828-to-1900/articles-and-essays/history-of-railroads-and-maps/notes/ that such grants to states and corporations for railway surveys became routine before the act was repealed in 1838. The earliest printed map in the collections of the Library of Congress based on government surveys conducted for a state-owned railroad is “Map of the Country Embracing the Various Routes Surveyed for the Western & Atlantic Rail Road of Georgia, 1837”.
The surveys were made under the direction of Lt. Col. Stephen H. Long, chief engineer, who ten years earlier had surveyed the routes for the Baltimore and Ohio. Work on the 138-mile Georgia route from Atlanta to Chattanooga started in 1841, and by 1850 the line was open to traffic.
What railroad is in Alabama?
Alabama & Gulf Coast Railway (AGR)
When was the first railroad built in the US?
First U.S. Railway Chartered to Transport Freight and Passengers On February 28, 1827, the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad became the first U.S. railway chartered for commercial transport of passengers and freight. There were skeptics who doubted that a steam engine could work along steep, winding grades, but the Tom Thumb, designed by Peter Cooper, put an end to their doubts.
- Investors hoped a railroad would allow Baltimore, the second largest U.S.
- City at the time, to successfully compete with New York for western trade.
- The first railroad track in the United States was only 13 miles long, but it caused a lot of excitement when it opened in 1830.
- Charles Carroll, the last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence, laid the first stone when construction on the track began at Baltimore harbor on July 4, 1828.
: First U.S. Railway Chartered to Transport Freight and Passengers
What slaves built the railroads?
African Americans and the Railroad – Great Smoky Mountains National Park (U.S. National Park Service) An African American chain gang at work in Swannanoa Cut on the Western North Carolina Railroad, near Round Knob in Buncombe County. Swannanoa Valley Museum & History Center The United States railroads are celebrated infrastructures that first connected the country through travel in the 19th century.
The Mountain Division of the Western North Carolina Railroad was revered due to its ingenuity which made the mountains more easily accessible to the rest of the nation, despite their complicated terrain. The railroad also provided great economic opportunities for Western North Carolina residents, contributing to the oil, logging, and steel industries.
However, the Black men and women who built the Western North Carolina Railroad have been ignored in the telling of its history. This is why the African American Experience (AAE) project highlights the roles of enslaved Africans, African American convicts, and laborers of the 20th century played in building the Western North Carolina Railroad.
The first railroad track in the United States became active in the 1830s, and the Western North Carolina extension was running from Salisbury to Asheville by the late 1850s. The idea was for the railroad to cut through the mountains from Morganton to Asheville, and further west. Due to the railroad’s construction, there was a very high demand for enslaved laborers during the mid-19th century in Western North Carolina.
Enslaved people were assigned many tasks such as digging track beds, laying tracks, working as cleaners, brakemen, maintenance workers, and cooks. While roles like cooking and cleaning are stereotyped as women’s tasks, enslaved men and women both performed these duties.
- It is likely that enslaved women were used for physical labor in the direct building and construction of the railroad as well.
- While some enslaved people who lived in the region were used to build the railroad, enslaved people from the Piedmont and eastern areas of the state were often rented out to railway companies as well.
Because enslavers in the mountains felt they needed their own enslaved labor to maintain their land and businesses, many enslaved people who worked on the railroad were hired out from their owners from other parts of North Carolina. Most railroad companies did not own enslaved people, but it was common for enslavers to hire out an allotted amount of their human property to railroad companies.
- Railroads and mining are the two industries that utilized rented enslaved labor most in Western North Carolina.
- Nicholas W.
- Woodfin and James W.
- Patton were the largest enslavers in Buncombe County, and they contributed to much of Asheville’s railroad construction.
- Using their own enslaved people, enslaved people that were hired out, and white labor, they headed this portion of the Western North Carolina railroad construction in 1861.
This year marks the start of the Civil War, and there is evidence that the high demand for enslaved laborers to work on the railroad continued further into the war. Advertisement for “100 able-bodied negroes” was released by the Western North Carolina Railroad in December of 1861.
- A similar advertisement for 50 enslaved laborers was released months later in 1862.
- William H.
- Thomas of the Cherokee Nation and Augustus S.
- Merrimon of Asheville wrote letters to Governor Zebulon B.
- Vance in 1862 requesting more enslaved labor for the railroads.
- However, based off the year’s agriculture, the number of enslaved people available to work the railroads was low.
A great portion of the railroad was destroyed in 1864 by General Stoneman of Stoneman’s Raid when he marched through Western North Carolina into Tennessee.
What is the oldest railroad station in the United States?
The Ellicott City Station is the oldest surviving railroad depot in America, and one of the oldest in the world.
Where is the oldest operating railroad in the world?
Early developments – The earliest railway in Britain was a wagonway system, a horse drawn wooden rail system, used by German miners at Caldbeck, Cumbria, England, perhaps from the 1560s. A wagonway was built at Prescot, near Liverpool, sometime around 1600, possibly as early as 1594.
- Owned by Philip Layton, the line carried coal from a pit near Prescot Hall to a terminus about half a mile away.
- On 26 July 1803, Jessop opened the Surrey Iron Railway, south of London erroneously considered first railway in Britain, also a horse-drawn one.
- It was not a railway in the modern sense of the word, as it functioned like a turnpike road,
There were no official services, as anyone could bring a vehicle on the railway by paying a toll. The oldest railway in continuous use is the Tanfield Railway in County Durham, England. This began life in 1725 as a wooden waggonway worked with horse power and developed by private coal owners and included the construction of the Causey Arch, the world’s oldest purpose built railway bridge.
- By the mid 19th century it had converted to standard gauge track and steam locomotive power.
- It continues in operation as a heritage line.
- The Middleton Railway in Leeds, opened in 1758, is also still in use as a heritage line and began using steam locomotive power in 1812 before reverting to horsepower and then upgrading to standard gauge.
In 1764, the first railway in the Americas was built in Lewiston, New York, The first passenger Horsecar or tram, Swansea and Mumbles Railway was opened between Swansea and Mumbles in Wales in 1807. Horse remained preferable mode for tram transport even after arrival of steam engines, well till the end of 19th century.
The major reason was that the horse-cars were clean as compared to steam driven trams which caused smoke in city streets. In 1812, Oliver Evans, an American engineer and inventor, published his vision of what steam railways could become, with cities and towns linked by a network of long-distance railways plied by speedy locomotives, greatly speeding up personal travel and goods transport.
Evans specified that there should be separate sets of parallel tracks for trains going in different directions. However, conditions in the infant United States did not enable his vision to take hold. This vision had its counterpart in Britain, where it proved to be far more influential.
- William James, a rich and influential surveyor and land agent, was inspired by the development of the steam locomotive to suggest a national network of railways.
- It seems likely that in 1808 James attended the demonstration running of Richard Trevithick ‘s steam locomotive Catch me who can in London; certainly at this time he began to consider the long-term development of this means of transport.
He proposed a number of projects that later came to fruition and is credited with carrying out a survey of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, Unfortunately he became bankrupt and his schemes were taken over by George Stephenson and others. However, he is credited by many historians with the title of “Father of the Railway”.
It was not until 1825, that the success of the Stockton and Darlington Railway in County Durham, England, the world’s first public railway to combine locomotive power, malleable iron rails, twin tracks and other innovations such as early signalling, proto-Station buildings and rudimentary timetables in one place It proved to a national and international audience that the railways could be made profitable for passengers and general goods as well as a single commodity such as coal.
This railway broke new ground by using rails made of rolled wrought iron, produced at Bedlington Ironworks in Northumberland, Such rails were stronger. This railway linked the coal field of Durham with the towns of Darlington and the port of Stockton-on-Tees and was intended to enable local collieries (which were connected to the line by short branches) to transport their coal to the docks.
- As this would constitute the bulk of the traffic, the company took the important step of offering to haul the colliery wagons or chaldrons by locomotive power, something that required a scheduled or timetabled service of trains.
- However, the line also functioned as a toll railway, on which private horse-drawn wagons could be carried.
This hybrid of a system (which also included, at one stage, a horse-drawn passenger traffic when sufficient locomotives weren’t available) could not last and within a few years, traffic was restricted to timetabled trains. (However, the tradition of private owned wagons continued on railways in Britain until the 1960s.).
The S&DRs chief engineer Timothy Hackworth under the guidance of its principal funder Edward Pease, hosted visiting engineers from the US, Prussia and France and shared experience and learning on how to build and run a railway so that by 1830 railways were being built in several locations across the UK, USA and Europe.
Trained engineers and workers from the S&DR went on to help develop several other lines elsewhere including the Liverpool and Manchester of 1830, the next step forward in railway development. The success of the Stockton and Darlington encouraged the rich investors in the rapidly industrialising North West of England to embark upon a project to link the rich cotton manufacturing town of Manchester with the thriving port of Liverpool, The Liverpool and Manchester Railway was the first modern railway, in that both the goods and passenger traffic were operated by scheduled or timetabled locomotive hauled trains.
- When it was built, there was serious doubt that locomotives could maintain a regular service over the distance involved.
- A widely reported competition was held in 1829 called the Rainhill Trials, to find the most suitable steam engine to haul the trains.
- A number of locomotives were entered, including Novelty, Perseverance and Sans Pareil,
The winner was Stephenson’s Rocket, which steamed better because of its multi-tubular boiler (suggested by Henry Booth, a director of the railway company). The promoters were mainly interested in goods traffic, but after the line opened on 15 September 1830, they were surprised to find that passenger traffic was just as remunerative.
The success of the Liverpool and Manchester railway added to the influence of the S&DR in the development of railways elsewhere in Britain and abroad. The company hosted many visiting deputations from other railway projects and many railwaymen received their early training and experience upon this line.
The Liverpool and Manchester line was, however, only 35 miles (56 km) long. The world’s first trunk line can be said to be the Grand Junction Railway, opening in 1837 and linking a midpoint on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway with Birmingham, via Crewe, Stafford and Wolverhampton,
Does Birmingham have an underground railway?
It was meant to mark the birth of a new Birmingham. In 2003, then Lord Mayor John Alden announced ground breaking plans – quite literally – to bring an underground tube system to England’s second city. But as with many similar campaigns, these calls fell on deaf ears.
With a population of over a million people – the lack of an underground rail system in Birmingham is somewhat puzzling. Rotterdam, Genoa, Turin and Lyon all boast extensive underground metro systems despite their significantly smaller populations. Even Liverpool and Newcastle have an underground rail service – but what about Birmingham? READ MORE: West Midlands Ambulance Service faces ‘total collapse’ in ‘Titanic moment’ as exact date predicted The new Elizabeth Line in London is the capital’s 12th underground line – while here in Birmingham we’re still waiting for our first.
We already know there’s a vast network of underground tunnels beneath our feet – but why have they never been used for transport? Here are three of the main reasons why Birmingham doesn’t have a tube network. The Snow Hill-Moor Street tunnel in 1987 – in proposed 70s plans, this could been access to a huge underground car park.
What was the grenade on the train Birmingham?
It’s been confirmed that the evacuation of Birmingham New Street Station and the cancellation of all services, was due to the discovery of a cannabis grinder, thought to be a “grenade” at one of the platforms. The device, thought to resemble the above image, was found shortly after 3:00 on Monday 31 October.
- Hundreds of passengers were moved away from the station entrances, as specialist officers assessed what was reported to be a hand grenade at platform one.
- Services restarted on Monday evening but disruption continued well into the night.
- British Transport Police said: “The item has now been assessed and deemed non-suspicious.
It’s a cannabis grinder designed to resemble a hand grenade. “The item has now been assessed by specialist officers and is no longer being treated as suspicious.” Destination boards warn of limited services Credit: Ryan Underwood Passengers on busy trains heading into New Street said train drivers were alerting them of reports of a hand grenade at one of the platforms.
British Transport Police teams earlier said: “Officers received a report of a suspicious item on a platform at Birmingham New Street at 3pm today (31 October). “The station has been evacuated as a precaution and a cordon is in place while specialist officers attend to assess the item.” Eyewitnesses on social media, including Joe Street, posted that police have been moving people away from the station entrances.
Passengers are being warned of disruption for the rest the day. Travellers are being urged to check National Rail Enquiries for the latest travel updates. What routes are affected ? Avanti: All lines are blocked and services are being diverted. Birmingham New Street & Sandwell and Dudley won’t be served until further notice.
What is the history of Birmingham transport?
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A Bundy Clock used by Birmingham City Transport to ensure that bus drivers did not depart from outlying termini before the due time; now preserved at Walsall Arboretum, Birmingham City Transport was the local authority-owned undertaking that provided road-based public transport in Birmingham, England, between 1899 and 1969.
- It was locally known as the Corporation Buses.
- Initially, it was called Birmingham Corporation Tramways, and, after the first motor bus services started in July 1914, it became Birmingham Corporation Tramways and Omnibus Department in 1928.
- Finally, in November 1937, it was renamed “Birmingham City Transport”, though Birmingham itself had been a City since 1889.
It was incorporated into the West Midlands Passenger Transport Executive in 1969.
How many railway stations are there in Birmingham?
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Birmingham station group is a station group of three railway stations in Birmingham city centre, consisting of New Street, Moor Street, and Snow Hill, The station group is printed on national railway tickets as BIRMINGHAM STNS and does not include the international station of Birmingham International, which is located some 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) east of the city centre next to Birmingham Airport and National Exhibition Centre,
What is the oldest train still running?
Puffing Billy – the world’s oldest surviving steam railway locomotive – in the Science Museum in London. ROBIN JONES It is not often the name of a railway locomotive becomes adopted as an everyday saying in the English language, but many believe that happened in the case of the world’s oldest surviving steam locomotive.
- This is just one of the many in-depth features found in the new book by Robin Jones, Legendary Locomotives, available now from Classic Magazines,
- IT IS generally accepted the world’s first steam railway locomotive was built by Cornish mining engineer Richard Trevithick at Coalbrookdale in 1802, but it was, as far as can be ascertained, never demonstrated in public, and it is believed few people ever saw it.
The oldest surviving steam railway locomotive in the world is Puffing Billy, which was built in 1813/14 for Christopher Blackett, owner of Wylam Colliery, near Newcastle-upon-Tyne. In 1805 Blackett had held talks with Trevithick, who supplied him with drawings of a steam locomotive.
- The locomotive, of which only very basic details survive, was built by foundry owner John Winfield and was running at Gateshead in May 1805.
- It was designed to be lighter than the locomotive demonstrated by Trevithick on the Penydarren Tramroad in 1804, and which broke the rails because of its weight.
Blackett’s 5ft-gauge waggonway was made of wooden rails. Trials of the locomotive were carried out, but Blackett did not want the locomotive and its perceived difficulties. Instead, it was said to have been converted into a blower for the foundry. Article continues below.
Advert Blackett approached Trevithick again in 1808 having relaid his five-mile waggonway as an iron plateway, arguing that this time it might well stand the weight of one of his locomotives, but he said he was too busy to oblige. So Blackett instead asked his colliery superintendent William Hedley to build him a locomotive.
At first, the pair looked at converting the Wylam waggonway to a rack-and-pinion system, as designed by Middleton Colliery coal viewer and inventor John Blenkinsop. Article continues below. Advert Puffing Billy runs past George Stephenson’s boyhood home alongside the Wylam waggonway, as painted by artist Rob Embleton. DURHAM JOINT CURRICULUM STUDY GROUP. Blenkinsop had looked at Trevithick’s locomotives and drew the conclusion their big problem was lack of adhesion.
- Trevithick’s relied on their weight to stop them slipping, but in the process broke the rails.
- So make locomotives lighter? The problem then would be they could not haul as many wagons.
- Blenkinsop invented a scheme whereby the locomotive would gain extra adhesion through a central cogwheel which would engage with a toothed third rail in the centre of the track.
He therefore invented the world’s first rack-and-pinion railway and took out a patent for the design, decades before any were built to ascend the Swiss Alps. Thousands of locals were amazed by the first locomotive as it ran light engine at 10mph during its trial run on the 4ft-gauge Middleton Railway, and then several of them jumped aboard the wagons for a ride.
It was estimated Blenkinsop’s locomotives could do the task of 50 horses. His locomotive Salamanca was the world’s first commercially successful steam locomotive on the first commercially successful steam railway, which led to the colliery’s profits soaring within two years thanks to its ‘modern’ transport taking coals to market.
Article continues below. Advert Blackett considered that converting his Wylam waggonway to a Blenkinsop rack-and-pinion system would be far too expensive, despite the rave reviews it was generating. John Blenkinsop’s rack-and-pion locomotive Salamanca of 1812. It impressed on the Middleton Colliery railway, but others remained unconvinced about the concept’s superiority over adhesion-worked railways. In turn, William Hedley showed adhesion-worked lines were superior, as demonstrated by his Puffing Billy locomotive.
Who built America’s railroads?
Frank Beard. “Does not such a meeting make amends?”, May 29, 1869. Gottscho-Schleisner Collection, Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. By connecting the existing eastern U.S. rail networks to the west coast, the Transcontinental Railroad (known originally as the “Pacific Railroad”) became the first continuous railroad line across the United States.
One of the early and most prominent people making the case for a transcontinental railroad was Asa Whitney. In 1849 he published his ideas on the idea of a railroad that began in Chicago and went to California. There were many others who also joined the chorus. In 1852 Theodore Judah was the chief engineer for the newly formed Sacramento Valley Railroad. He undertook a survey to find a manageable route through the high and rugged Sierra Nevada and in 1856 presented his plan to Congress. Congress passed the Pacific Railroad Act of 1862 on July 1, 1862, and the Central Pacific Railroad (CPRR) and the Union Pacific Railroad were authorized by Congress.
The rail line, also called the Great Transcontinental Railroad and later the “Overland Route,” was predominantly built by the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California (CPRR) and Union Pacific (with some contribution by the Western Pacific Railroad Company) over public lands provided by extensive US land grants.
The railroad opened for through traffic on May 10, 1869, when CPRR President Leland Stanford ceremonially drove the gold “Last Spike” (later often referred to as the “Golden Spike”) at Promontory Summit in Utah. But the story of the railroads in the United States, and these two companies in particular, was really just getting started.
The original Union Pacific, entangled in the Crédit Mobilier scandal and hit hard by the financial crisis of 1873, was eventually taken over by the new Union Pacific Railway in 1880 with its major stockholder being Jay Gould, It continued on, eventually becoming Union Pacific Railway.
Central Pacific also went through changes including consolidation with the Western Pacific Railroad and the San Francisco Bay Railroad Co. under the name “Central Pacific Railroad Co.” In 1885 it was leased to Southern Pacific and three years later the ICC listed it as non-operating. In 1899 it was reorganized as Central Pacific Railway and in 1959 it merged into Southern Pacific.
If you have any further questions, please Ask A Librarian,
What is the largest railroad in the United States?
- ^ “EMPLOYER STATUS DETERMINATION Union Pacific Railroad Company Southern Pacific Transportation Company” (PDF), Railroad Retirement Board.
- ^ “Company Overview”, Union Pacific Corporation. December 31, 2013, Retrieved March 27, 2014,
- ^ “An Act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes Archived May 27, 2016, at the Wayback Machine 12 Stat.489, July 1, 1862
- ^ Collins, R.M. (2010). Irish Gandy Dancer: A tale of building the Transcontinental Railroad, Seattle: Create Space.p.198. ISBN 978-1-4528-2631-8,
- ^ Union Pacific Railroad Company (April 2, 1868). Progress of the Union Pacific railroad west from Omaha, Nebraska, across the continent, making,: with its connections, an unbroken line from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean (Pamphlet ed.).15 Vandewater Street, L.O.: C.A. Alvord.p.5. This aid was given to two powerful companies, viz., to The Union Pacific Railroad Company, building from Omaha, on the Missouri river, West; and to The Central Pacific Railroad Company of California, building from Sacramento, East. } : CS1 maint: location ( link ) Text taken from OCR; may be corrupt.
- ^ “Ceremony at “Wedding of the Rails,” May 10, 1869 at Promontory Point, Utah”, World Digital Library, May 10, 1869, Retrieved July 20, 2013,
- ^ Solomon, Brian (2000). Union Pacific Railroad, Osceola, WI: MBI.p.36. ISBN 978-0-7603-0756-4,
- ^ Crawford, Jay Boyd (1880). The Credit Mobilier of America: Its Origin and History, Boston: C.W. Calkins & Co.p.101,
- ^ Ripley, William Zebina (1915). Railroads: Finance and Organization, New York: Longmans, Green, & Company. pp.249 –250. gould.
- ^ “PNWC-NRHS”, Oregon-Washington Railroad & Navigation Company, Retrieved September 7, 2018,
- ^ Brian Solomon (2000). Union Pacific Railroad, Voyageur Press. pp.35–43. ISBN 9781610605595,
- ^ “Post-Construction”, Union Pacific. Archived from the original on September 8, 2018, Retrieved September 7, 2018,
- ^ “Pacific Fruit Express Company Forms”, Union Pacific, Retrieved September 7, 2018,
- ^ “Lucin Cutoff Opens”, Union Pacific, Retrieved September 7, 2018,
- ^ “M-10000 Streamliner Debuts”, Union Pacific, Retrieved September 7, 2018, See also in the sidebar: “By 1936, Union Pacific’s shiny new Streamliners had begun to attract passengers back to the railroad, but the Depression was keeping passenger counts low.”
- ^ “Union Pacific Railroad invention still takes skiers to the top”, Union Pacific Railroad. November 29, 2010, Retrieved June 9, 2017,
- ^ Lund, Morten (2000). “An extraordinary history of Sun Valley”, Skiing Heritage Journal, pp.20–25.
- ^ “UP Receives Its Last New Steam Locomotive”, Union Pacific, Retrieved September 7, 2018,
- ^ 1980 mileage is from Moody’s Transportation Manual (1981); the ICC’s Transport Statistics says Union Pacific System operated 8,614 route-miles at year end 1980, but the 1979 issue says 9,315 route-miles and the 1981 says 9,096, so their 1980 figures look unlikely.
- ^ Jump up to: a b “Mergers since 1980”. Trains,76 (11): 31. November 2016. ProQuest 1820289392, (Sidebar on “Transcon Mergers” article.)
- ^ Jump up to: a b c d e ICC annual reports
- ^ Jump up to: a b Moody’s report
- ^ Arbona, Joe (August 22, 2007). “Union Pacific Begins Construction of $90 Million State-of-the-Art Intermodal Terminal in Southwest Bexar County”, San Antonio, Texas : Union Pacific, Retrieved April 2, 2015,
- ^ Espinoza, Raquel (March 11, 2009). “Union Pacific Railroad Opens New San Antonio Intermodal Terminal”, San Antonio, Texas : Union Pacific, Retrieved September 7, 2015,
- ^ “Rockin’ and Railroading at the Santa Teresa Intermodal Facility”, up.com, Union Pacific, Retrieved October 6, 2021,
- ^ “North America’s Hump Yards”, Trains, July 8, 2006. Archived from the original on December 4, 2008, Retrieved January 13, 2015,
- ^ “West Colton Yard” (PDF) (Press release). Union Pacific. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 6, 2019, Retrieved June 11, 2019,
- ^ Ziobro, Paul (April 18, 2017). “New CSX CEO Shakes up the Railroad, Starting with ‘Hump Yards’ “, Wall Street Journal, ‘Hump yards are very complicated and expensive and work when you’re bringing things in from lots of directions’.’The more you do preblocking, the more you don’t need the complexity-solving machine that is a hump yard.’
- ^ Service, Henry J. Cordes BH News (October 20, 2019). “Union Pacific sees ‘outstanding’ results 1 year into efficiency push, but workforce has been cut 13%”, North Platte Nebraska’s Newspaper, Retrieved October 26, 2019,
- ^ Brian Solomon (1981). Union Pacific Railroad, Voyageur Press.p.91. ISBN 9781610605595,
- ^ Union Pacific Bulletin, UPRR.1950.p.13. NEW DRESS FOR SPRING in 1934. Since that time, all streamliner passenger equipment has been painted the, Yellow is widely used where high visibility is desired as a safety feature. Union Pacific engineers claim that use of yellow on U.P. trains will further reduce the incidence of grade crossing accidents, especially at night. Nighttime visibility is increased still more by use of red reflection Union
- ^ Welsh, Joe. Union Pacific’s Streamliners, Voyageur Press.p.59. ISBN 978-1-61673-115-1,
- ^ Strack, Don (August 25, 2015). “Armour Yellow on Union Pacific”, utahrails.net, Retrieved June 23, 2022,
- ^ Guss, Chris (March 2018). “Perfecting a unified look”. Trains,78 (3): 14. ProQuest 1988415135,
- ^ “Denver & Rio Grande Western Colors Again Ride the Rails” (Press release). Union Pacific Railroad. June 19, 2006, Retrieved April 20, 2010,
- ^ November 8, Jim Wrinn |; 2019. “Union Pacific donates SD70ACe No.4141 to George H.W. Bush Presidential Library; Big Boy 4014 joins celebration | Trains Magazine”, TrainsMag.com, Archived from the original on September 28, 2020, Retrieved November 8, 2019, } : CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list ( link )
- ^ “Union Pacific Donates George H.W. Bush Engine 4141 To The Bush Library And Museum”, wtaw.com, Archived from the original on November 9, 2019, Retrieved November 9, 2019,
- ^ “Union Pacific Railroad Unveils No.2010 Boy Scouts of America Commemorative Locomotive” (Press release). Union Pacific Railroad. March 31, 2010, Retrieved April 20, 2010,
- ^ “Union Pacific Railroad Unveils Its Pink Ribbon Locomotive” (Press release). Union Pacific Railroad. September 28, 2010, Retrieved May 12, 2012,
- ^ “UP unveils ‘Powered by our People’ special paint scheme | Trains Magazine”,
- ^ ” “We Are ONE” Commemorative Locomotive Debuts”, Union Pacific. May 27, 2021, Retrieved April 15, 2022,
- ^ Bogdanich, Walt; Nordberg, Jenny (January 23, 2005). “Highway Agency Disavows Claims by Rail Safety Group”, The New York Times, ISSN 0362-4331, Retrieved June 23, 2022,
- ^ “Train Pride”, Union Pacific, Retrieved September 7, 2018, Today Union Pacific operates the largest diesel-electric fleet in the United States.
- ^ “UP: Steam”, Union Pacific, Retrieved September 7, 2018,
- ^ “E-9 Streamliners”, Union Pacific, Retrieved September 7, 2018,
- ^ “New Ultra-Low Emission Locomotive Goes to Work in Union Pacific’s Los Angeles Basin Rail Yards”, Union Pacific, Retrieved January 19, 2017,
- ^ Guss, Chris (August 2018). “Few flowers for gensets”. Trains,78 (8): 18–19. ProQuest 2056018178,
- ^ “Executive Profiles”, www.up.com, Retrieved March 21, 2020,
- ^ “Union Pacific”, Fortune, Retrieved November 18, 2018,
- ^ Parker, Garrett (August 20, 2019). “The 20 Worst Companies to Work For in 2019”, Money Inc, Retrieved February 13, 2020,
- ^ Lassen, David (July 22, 2020). “STB filings detail Metra, UP disagreement (updated)”, Trains Magazine, Retrieved July 29, 2020,
- ^ “Metra History”, Metra. August 10, 2018. Archived from the original on March 8, 2019, Retrieved August 10, 2018,
- ^ See Solomon, Brian, Railroad Color History: Union Pacific Railroad, p.72 (photo of last westbound City of Los Angeles taken at Las Vegas on May 2, 1971). MBI Publishing, 2000.
- ^ “Scenic route to be taken by Amtrak”, Eugene Register-Guard, March 17, 1983, Retrieved September 12, 2010,
- ^ Alicia Ebaugh, Journal staff writer (September 4, 2007). “Derailment cuts traffic in Sergeant Bluff”, Sioux City Journal, Retrieved October 29, 2015,
- ^ “NTSB: Why didn’t train wait before Oklahoma crash?”, The Washington Times, June 26, 2012, Retrieved July 19, 2012,
- ^ “Train engineer’s vision problems led to deadly Oklahoma wreck, NTSB rules”, Oklahoman.com, June 18, 2013, Retrieved November 2, 2019,
- ^ “NTSB Launches Go-Team to Missouri to Investigate Collision Between Two Freight Trains That Partially Collapsed a Highway Overpass”, National Transportation Safety Board, Retrieved May 26, 2013,
- ^ Hendricks, Christy. “NTSB investigating after train collision, overpass collapse in Scott County”, KFVS12. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017, Retrieved May 26, 2013,
- ^ “HQ-2013-13 (Finalized) | FRA”, Archived from the original on April 6, 2016, Retrieved 2016-03-27,
- ^ “Local News Releases”, Archived from the original on April 12, 2016, Retrieved March 27, 2016,
- ^ Reyes-Velarde, Alejandra; Lin II, Rong-Gong (November 1, 2018). “A San Andreas fault mystery: The ‘slow-moving disaster’ in an area where the Big One is feared”, Los Angeles Times,
- ^ Andrews, Robin George (November 9, 2018). “A bubbling pool of mud is on the move, and no one knows why”, National Geographic,
- ^ Francuch, Dean G; Deane, Travis; Zamora, Carol (2019). “The meandering Mundo Mud Pot: Or how Salton Sea tectonics affect international trade”, Proceedings of the 70th Highway Geology Symposium : 439–456.
- ^ “Union Pacific train with liquefied gas derails in Portland”, Associated Press, September 7, 2019, Retrieved September 9, 2019,
- ^ “Union Pacific train derails in Portland’s Albina Yard, cracks support beam of overpass”, Fox 12 Oregon, September 7, 2019, Retrieved September 9, 2019,
- ^ Young, Molly (September 8, 2019). “Swan Island traffic could be backed up for months after train slams into vital Going Street bridge”, The Oregonian, Retrieved September 9, 2019,
- ^ Jump up to: a b Theen, Andrew (September 25, 2019). “Portland approves $1 million repair contract for Going Street bridge smashed by train”, oregonlive, Retrieved October 16, 2019,
- ^ Oregonian/OregonLive, Rosemarie Stein | The (November 14, 2019). “Portland metro Thursday traffic: PBOT gets a fourth lane open on Going Street Bridge”, oregonlive, Retrieved January 6, 2020,
- ^ “Union Pacific identifies broken rail as cause of Portland train derailment, crash into columns”, Fox 12 Oregon, September 9, 2019, Retrieved September 10, 2019,
- ^ Sorenson, Saundra. “Three-Car Derailment in North Portland Signals Ongoing Safety Concerns”, The Skanner News, Retrieved October 14, 2020,
- ^ “Freight train derails in Colton”, KTLA, March 21, 2022, Retrieved March 22, 2022,
- ^ “Chlorine Rail Car Incident” (PDF), Aristatek, Retrieved April 18, 2010,
- ^ Jump up to: a b c Nordberg, Jenny; Bogdanich, Walt (November 17, 2004). “Regulators Plan to Step Up Union Pacific Safety Checks”, The New York Times,
- ^ “NTSB – Remarks by Robert L. Sumwalt”, National Transportation Safety Board, Retrieved April 19, 2010,
- ^ “Man Killed in Fifth Train Derailment in San Antonio Since May”, The New York Times, November 11, 2004, Retrieved April 18, 2010,
- ^ Jump up to: a b c Bogdanich, Walt (March 19, 2005). “Texas Has Pact With Railroad To Move Lines”, The New York Times,
- ^ “Train derailment leaves big mess”, pro8news. Archived from the original on March 8, 2010, Retrieved April 18, 2010,
- ^ “Train derails near New Braunfels”, San Antonio Express News, Retrieved April 18, 2010,
- ^ Davila, Vianna (November 4, 2009). “UP train derails in Atascosa County”, San Antonio Express News, Archived from the original on September 4, 2012, Retrieved April 18, 2010,
- ^ “Train derails near Schulenburg, spills chemical”, The Victoria Advocate, Retrieved April 15, 2010,
- ^ “Schulenburg Train Derailment”, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Retrieved April 18, 2010,
- ^ Jump up to: a b “San Jose: In tense meeting, Union Pacific tells residents night horns will continue”, The Mercury News, June 5, 2019, Retrieved March 21, 2020,
- ^ “San Jose homeless encampments cleared along Union Pacific railroad tracks”, The Mercury News, December 14, 2019, Retrieved March 21, 2020,
- ^ Webb, Kat (June 20, 2022). “New traffic signal left on ‘red’: Logan claims Union Pacific trying to railroad them with perpetual fees”, The Herald Journal, Retrieved June 25, 2022,
- ^ “Utah lawmakers, Union Pacific make nice: Bill to force clean switchers put on hold”, Deseret News, March 1, 2022, Retrieved June 25, 2022,
- ^ “Utah bill aimed at Union Pacific switch engines placed on hold”, Trains, March 2, 2022, Retrieved June 25, 2022,
- ^ “Union Pacific Railyard Cleanup, Eugene”, Oregon Department of Environmental Quality. Archived from the original on May 26, 2008, Retrieved March 29, 2009,
- ^ “Union Pacific Tests Exhaust Catalyst on Locomotives”, Environmental Leader, January 18, 2007. Archived from the original on October 9, 2008, Retrieved May 8, 2008,
- ^ BioAge Media. “Green Car Congress: DOT Secretary Commends Union Pacifics Conservation Program, Says US Needs to Go on Energy Diet”, greencarcongress.com, Retrieved October 29, 2015,
- ^ “Portland Man Pleads Guilty to Clean Water Act Violation for Discharging Oil Into Willamette River”, Department of Justice – U.S. Attorney’s Office, August 5, 2019, Retrieved November 4, 2019,
- ^ Bernstein, Maxine (June 24, 2019). “Union Pacific plant operator allowed thousands of gallons of oil to spill into Willamette River, feds say”, oregonlive, Retrieved November 2, 2019,
- ^ Bernstein, Maxine (October 28, 2019). “Former Union Pacific plant officer who allowed gallons of oil to seep into Willamette River gets probation”, oregonlive, Retrieved November 2, 2019,
- ^ “Ex-railroad plant operator who allowed oil spill sentenced”, AP NEWS, October 29, 2019, Retrieved November 2, 2019,
- ^ Richard Burgess (February 5, 2016). “Landowners sue to get Lafayette railroad yard cleaned up, concerned about contamination of aquifer: Potential threat to Chicot Aquifer cited”, The Advocate, Retrieved November 9, 2021,
- ^ Erin Douglas (September 19, 2020). “Residents sue Union Pacific, others over cancer deaths”, NewsBank, Houston Chronicle, Retrieved November 9, 2021,
- ^ Sara Willa Ernst (February 3, 2021). ” ‘We Know What We Want’: 5th Ward Residents Demand Action After Another Confirmed Cancer Cluster”, Houston PBS, Retrieved November 9, 2021,
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- ^ “Museum History”, UPRR Museum, Retrieved September 7, 2018,
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- ^ “UPRR Museum”, Retrieved April 2, 2017,
When did Britain start using trains?
The first purpose built passenger railway, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, was authorised by Act of Parliament in 1826. The South Eastern Railway Act was passed just ten years later. Even in those first ten years, railways were beginning to lead to significant changes within British society.
When did trains start running in England?
British Railways, byname British Rail, former national railway system of Great Britain, created by the Transport Act of 1947, which inaugurated public ownership of the railroads, The first railroad built in Great Britain to use steam locomotives was the Stockton and Darlington, opened in 1825.
- It used a steam locomotive built by George Stephenson and was practical only for hauling minerals.
- The Liverpool and Manchester Railway, which opened in 1830, was the first modern railroad.
- It was a public carrier of both passengers and freight,
- By 1870 Britain had about 13,500 miles (21,700 km) of railroad.
At the system’s greatest extent, in 1914, there were about 20,000 miles (32,000 km) of track, run by 120 competing companies. The British government combined all these companies into four main groups in 1923 as an economy measure. When World War II began in 1939, Britain’s railroads were placed under government control.
The Transport Act of 1947 nationalized the railways, which were taken over by the British Transport Commission (BTC) in 1948 and given the name British Railways. The BTC divided Britain’s rail network into six (later five) regions on a geographic basis. A 1962 law replaced the BTC with the British Railways Board in 1963.
The board’s management emphasized mass movement over major trunk lines and the closing of money-losing branch lines and depots. Between 1963 and 1975 the board shortened its routes from 17,500 miles (28,000 km) to 11,000 miles (17,000 km) and cut personnel from about 475,000 to about 250,000.
- As part of a modernization program, steam locomotives began to be replaced by diesels in the 1950s, and this was followed in the ’60s by electrification,
- The board undertook track reconstruction, installed long, continuously welded rails, and introduced new signaling systems.
- A computerized freight service introduced in 1975 could monitor the movements of more than 200,000 freight cars.
In 1966–67 the west-coast line from London to Birmingham, Manchester, and Liverpool was electrified, and in the early 1970s electrification was extended to Glasgow. Track improvements and the High Speed Train ( InterCity 125 ), a diesel train operating at speeds up to 125 miles per hour (200 km per hour), cut travel times between Britain’s major cities.
- The British government restructured British Rail in 1993 prior to privatizing the company.
- Passenger traffic and freight traffic were divided into 25 train-operating units and six freight-operating companies, respectively, that were franchised to private-sector operators.
- A new state-owned company, Railtrack, was created in 1994 to own and manage the system’s track, signals, land, and stations.
Railtrack was privatized in 1996. A cracked rail led to a train derailment at Hatfield in 2000 that killed four people; trains were slowed down throughout the country as rails were checked for cracks. As a result, Railtrack announced losses of 534 million pounds in 2001.
When did train travel become popular in England?
1830 – 1922: Early development – In 1830 the Liverpool and Manchester Railway opened. This set the pattern for modern railways. It was the world’s first inter-city passenger railway and the first to have ‘scheduled’ services, terminal stations and services as we know them today. The railways carried freight and passengers with also the world’s first goods terminal station at the Park Lane railway goods station at Liverpool’s south docks, accessed by the 1.26-mile Wapping Tunnel,
In 1836, at the Liverpool end the line was extended to Lime Street station in Liverpool’s city centre via a 1.1 mile long tunnel. Many of the first public railways were built as local rail links operated by small private railway companies. With increasing rapidity, more and more lines were built, often with scant regard for their potential for traffic.
The 1840s were by far the biggest decade for railway growth. In 1840, when the decade began, railway lines in Britain were few and scattered but, within ten years, a virtually complete network had been laid down and the vast majority of towns and villages had a rail connection and sometimes two or three.
- Over the course of the 19th and early 20th centuries, most of the pioneering independent railway companies amalgamated or were bought by competitors, until only a handful of larger companies remained (see Railway Mania ).
- The period also saw a steady increase in government involvement, especially in safety matters.
The 1840 ” Act for Regulating Railways ” empowered the Board of Trade to appoint railway inspectors. The Railway Inspectorate was established in 1840, to enquire into the causes of accidents and recommend ways of avoiding them. As early as 1844, a bill had been put before Parliament suggesting the state purchase of the railways; this was not adopted.
- It did, however, lead to the introduction of minimum standards for the construction of carriages and the compulsory provision of 3rd class accommodation for passengers – so-called ” Parliamentary trains “.
- The railway companies ceased to be profitable after the mid-1870s.
- Nationalisation of the railways was first proposed by William Ewart Gladstone as early as the 1840s, and calls for nationalisation continued throughout that century, with F.
Keddell writing in 1890 that “The only valid ground for maintaining the monopoly would be the proof that the Railway Companies have made a fair and proper use of their great powers, and have conduced to the prosperity of the people. But the exact contrary is the case.” The entire network was brought under government control during the First World War, and a number of advantages of amalgamation and planning were revealed.
When did electric trains start in UK?
August 4 1883 : Britain’s first electric railway opens in Brighton.